Periodontal disease is a progressive condition that leads to severe inflammation and tooth loss if left untreated. Antibiotic treatments can be used in combination with scaling and root planing, curettage, surgery, or as a stand-alone treatment to help reduce bacteria before and/or after many common periodontal procedures.
Antibiotic treatments come in several different types, including oral forms and topical gels which are applied directly into the gum pockets. Research has shown that in the case of acute periodontal infection, refractory periodontal disease, prepubertal periodontal disease and juvenile periodontal disease, antibiotic treatments have been incredibly effective.
Antibiotics can be prescribed at a low dose for longer term use or as a short term medication to deter bacteria from re-colonizing.
Oral antibiotics tend to affect the whole body and are less commonly prescribed than topical gel. Here are some specific details about several different types of oral antibiotics:
Tetracycline antibiotics – Antibiotics which include tetracycline hydrochloride, doxycycline, and minocycline are the primary drugs used in periodontal treatment. They have antibacterial properties, reduce inflammation and block collagenase (a protein which destroys the connective tissue). This should not be used with pregnant women or children still forming permanent teeth as it will affect the color of the permanent teeth.
Macrolide antibiotics – This group of antibiotics has proven effective at reducing inflammation and can also reduce bacterial growth associated with periodontitis.
Metronidazole – This antibiotic is generally used in combination with amoxicillin or tetracycline to combat inflammation and bacterial growth in severe or chronic periodontitis.
Topical Gels and Strips
The biggest advantage of directly delivering antibiotics to the surface of the gums is not affecting the entire body. Topical gels and direct delivery methods tend to be preferred over their oral counterparts and are extremely effective when used after scaling and root planing procedures. Here are some of the most commonly used direct delivery antibiotics:
Atridox® – This doxycycline gel conforms to the contours of gum surfaces and solidifies over them. Over several days, this gel gradually releases the antibiotic medication. This should not be used with pregnant women or children still forming permanent teeth as it will affect the color of the permanent teeth.
PerioChip® – This chip is placed into the actual gum pocket after a root planing procedure. PerioChip® slowly releases Chlorhexidine, a powerful antibacterial antiseptic. PerioChip® reduces pocket depth in most periodontitis cases.
Actisite® – This thin strip is similar to dental floss and contains tetracycline hydrochloride. The thread is temporarily placed between the tooth and gum to kill bacteria and reduce pocket depth. Several threads are sometimes placed for around 10 days to enhance the antibiotic effect. This should not be used with pregnant women or children still forming permanent teeth as it will affect the color of the permanent teeth.
Elyzol® – This metronidazole antibiotic comes in gel and strip form. It is unique because it is able to destroy parasites as well as oral bacteria.
Arestin® – This Minocycline antibiotic comes in mini capsules which are delivered into the gums after scaling and root planing. This should not be used with pregnant women or children still forming permanent teeth as it will affect the color of the permanent teeth.
Noticeable periodontal improvements are usually seen after systemic or oral antibiotic treatment. We will incorporate antibiotic treatments as necessary for the healing of your periodontal condition.
If you have any questions about periodontal disease or antibiotic treatments, contact our practice at your convenience.